Management consulting refers generally to the provision of business services, but there are numerous specialties, such as information technology consulting, human resource consulting, virtual management consulting and others, many of which overlap, and most of which are offered by the larger diversified consultancies. So-called “boutique” consultancies, however, are smaller organizations focusing upon a few of such specialties.

The 1990s saw an increase in what has been termed a ‘future-based’ approach. This emphasised language and alignment of people within an organization to a common vision of the future of the organization, as set out in the book “Three Laws of Performance”. The essential concept here was that the way people perform is seen to correlate to the way that world occurs for them, and that future-based language could alter the way the future actually occurs for them.

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